Aspects and decorators

I have been using Aspyct in my game to do logging and have been really happy with it. Recently I wanted to try and make executable version of my game by using Py2Exe. For some reason, Py2Exe did not package Aspyct alongside with rest of the code, no matter what I tried, so I had to come up with another way of handling logging.

Aspyct is based on decorators. You inherit Aspect class and override methods that define what happens before the call, after the call and when exception is thrown. Writing simple decorator that does some of this was not too easy (I didn’t really need all the features Aspyct offers):

def logged(fn):
    Decorator to perform logging
    logger_name = str(fn)
    logger = logging.getLogger(logger_name)

    def log(*args, **kwargs):
        Log function call
        call_message = ' '.join([logger_name,


        result = fn(*args, **kwargs)

        result_message = ' '.join([logger_name,


        return result

    return log

Using the logged decorator is simple:

def receive_event(self, event):

When receive_event function is defined, logged is evaluated. It will construct a new function called log, which can take any number of parameters. This new function is then wrapped around receive_event function, essentially resulting following construct:

def receive_event(self, event):
receive_event = log(receive_event)

Another example where I find decorators really shine is in testing:

def observed(fn):
    Decorator to inject observer
    def observe(*args, **kwargs):
        Inject observer
        context = args[0]

        if not hasattr(context, 'observer'):
   = EventListener()

            if not hasattr(context, 'model'):
                context.model = Model()


        return fn(*args, **kwargs)

    return observe

I’m using decorator to inject test helpers into context being used in behave. This way when I want to examine what kind of events have been raised, I don’t have to repeat the same code multiple times:

@given(u'{character_name} is Adventurer')
def impl(context, character_name):
    if not hasattr(context, 'characters'):
        context.characters = []
    new_character = Adventurer() = character_name
    new_character.model = context.model

When ever there is an Adventurer present in a test, there will be an Observer that will record all the events raised.


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